Biography Alexander Sutherland Neill Facts The Scottish psychologist Alexander Sutherland Neill is most famous as the founder of Summerhill School and as the developer of its radical child-centered theory of education.
He was raised in an austere, Calvinist house with values of fear, guilt, and adult and divine authority, which he later repudiated. The village dominie held a position of prestige, hierarchically beneath that of upper classes, doctors, and clergymen. Neill feared his father, though he later claimed his father's imagination as a role model for good teaching.
Scholars have interpreted Neill's harsh childhood as the impetus for his later philosophy, though his father was not shown to be harsher to Allie as Neill was known  than to anyone else. Instead of wasting time and money,  Neill went to work as a junior clerk in an Edinburgh gas meter factory.
His parents took pity on his hatred of the job, homesickness, and its low pay, and so Neill became an apprentice draper in Forfar. He found the work stultifying and came home after a foot inflammation.
Neill tried to take an examination that would raise his pay grade, but could not bring himself to study. Now 15, his parents decided to make him his father's assistant "pupil teacher". He taught a wider range of topics as his self-confidence grew, and he developed an interest in mathematics from the Forfar Alexander s neil maths master.
After four years, he tried for teacher training college, but came nearly last in his class. He continued as a pupil teacher in Bonnyrigg and Kingskettlewhere he found the teachers' instruction militant and loathsome. After studying with the priest and the Forfar math master, Neill passed his university entrance exam and preliminary teacher's certification.
He also fell in love, and Margaret became an obsession of his. He adopted progressive techniques at this school, and abandoned the tawse for other forms of establishing discipline.
Neill was friendly and relaxed with his pupils, and described his two years there as "the happiest of [his] life thus far". He began as an agriculture student, at his father's behest for a well-salaried career,  but switched to English literature by the end of his first year.
He also felt more confident to pursue women. He took a new job as art editor of the Piccadilly Magazine, but its operations were halted by the onset of World War I in which he served as an officer in the army.
He returned to Scotland, working as a head teacher at Gretna Green School during the first year of the war. The diary he wrote for this year was published as a book, A Dominie's Login November by Herbert Jenkinsand received good reviews for its humour and narrative style.
Neill was invited to join a progressive school in Dresden in The school moved to a monastery near Vienna inwhere the townspeople did not receive it well.
He moved to England in and started Summerhill in Lyme Regiswhere the name came from the estate. Summerhill School Summerhill, The school picked up some notoriety and the average enrollment was 40 pupils. Init moved to Leistonwhere it remained. Despite this, he would flippantly remark that Summerhill was the only Christian school in England when its philosophy was compared with that of Christ.
Neill saw the doctrine of "original sin" as a means of control and sought a world ruled by love and self-examination.
Philosophy of Summerhill School Neill felt that children and human nature were innately good, and that children naturally became just and virtuous when allowed to grow without adult imposition of morality. Such unhappiness led to repressed and psychologically disordered adults.
He felt that children turned to self-hate and internal hostility when denied an outlet for expression in adult systems of emotional regulation and manipulation. Likewise, children taught to withhold their sexuality would see such feelings negatively, which would fuel disdain for self.
Neill thought that calls for obedience quenched the natural needs of children. Moreover, their needs could not be fulfilled by adults or a society that simultaneously prolonged their unhappiness, although perhaps a school like Summerhill could help.
Denis Lawton, Education and Social Justice, p. Neill considered forced instruction without pupil interest a destructive waste of time. Bailey also cited "adaptive preferences" literature, where human interests change based on their surroundings and circumstances, as evidence of how intrinsic interest can be externally influenced.
He saw their animalistic traits as qualities to be "outgrown with time and freedom". This education usually entailed copious amounts of play and distance from the adult anxieties of work and ambition. The reverence for Reich appears in the abundant correspondence between them.
In Reich's view, "discharge" of sexual energy leads to happiness, whereas lack of such discharge leads to unhappiness and "rigidity". Although not a trained therapist, Neill gave psychoanalytic private lessons to individual children, designed to unblock impasses in their inner energies.
Neill also offered body massageas suggested by Reich. Neill later found that freedom cured better than this therapy.View Neil Alexander’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community.
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PowToon's animation templates help you create animated . records for Alexander Neil. Find Alexander Neil's phone, address, and email on Spokeo, the leading online directory. James Neil Alexander (born 10 March ) is a Scottish football coach and former professional player, who is currently the goalkeeping coach at Dundee United.
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Get the latest news from leading industry trades. Alexander Sutherland Neill flouted educational convention with utopian faith in individuals' ability to direct their own learning.
His romantic Progressive beliefs concerning students' rights and freedoms, his refusal to conform to popular moral and intellectual standards, and his emphasis on social and character development led him to found his own school, Summerhill, in