What is the definition of sex and gender? How do they compare? What is the definition of nature and nurture?
Money, were encouraged and assured that if they surgically made their son appear feminine, with the help of administering hormones and their nurturing, they could raise the child successfully as a girl.
Brenda Reimer growing up David Reimer after reassuming his male identity This begs the question, is gender identity nature and innate or is it, as Dr.
Money would have led us to believe, entirely based on cultural and nurturing factors? Research at the Johns Hopkins Children Center has shown that gender identity is almost entirely based on nature and is almost exclusively predetermined before the birth of the baby.
Two studies conducted by William Reiner, a child and adolescent psychiatrist and urologist, have confirmed that the amount of exposure to male hormones and androgens in utero almost exclusively decides whether the child identifies as masculine or feminine. In the first study, Reiner followed 14 children whose testicles and male hormone levels were completely normal at birth, but who were born without a penis — 12 of the children were surgically reconstructed to appear female.
Today, all 12 of the children raised as females are strongly male a-typical in their behaviors, attitudes, friends and play and 6 of the 12 have already reassumed their male gender identities at the ages of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 respectively.
The 2 children who did not undergo sex reassignment surgeries as infants developed far more normally and more similarly to their normal male peers and were much more psychologically well adjusted that the sex-reassigned children. In the second study, Reiner followed 12 genetically male children who were born with a similar defect, in that they lacked a penis at birth.
All of these children underwent a sex reassignment surgery to appear female in infancy. Since then, 8 of the 12 have reassigned themselves back to a male identity. These children demonstrate that normal male gender identity can develop not only in the absence of the penis, but even after the removal of testicles or castration at birth, and unequivocal rearing as female.
Most scientists now believe that gender identity is something that is predetermined by a biological aspect and cannot be chosen for a child. This new outlook has called for the reevaluation of sex reassignment surgeries on infants and parents who are considering one for their child are urged with extreme caution to consider letting their child decide on their own at a later age.
They seem to be quite capable of telling us who they are.Nature vs. Nurture: A Gender Debate on Gender Differences Posted By Brandon Rodarte on January 28, Gender differences is an ongoing debate which contains arguments that gender differences are caused by different biological, or social differences.
May 10, · "Gender" and "Sex" are different. Sex is the biological characteristics of a person. And gender is a set of behaviors, attitudes, and psychology.
You are born either a male or female based on chromosomes, genes and hormones. If you believe that your gender identity is caused by nature, you believe you are predisposed to certain traits based on genetics.
Let’s talk about gender!
Gender is a psychological term . There has been much debate between biologists and social scientists about whether gender identity, the strong belief that one belongs to either the male or female sex category, is the result of humans being obedient to their biological genes (nature) or to their environmental upbringing (nurture).4/5(2).
Nature vs. Nurture It is a matter of concern whether human behaviors and characteristics are determined by nature or nurture. If a person’s behavior is inherited directly from the genes of his/her parents or other biological factors, then it is the nature that determines his character.
Nature vs. Nurture Debate. Most psychologists today conclude that both nature and nurture play significant roles in the cognitive development of children and adolescents.
In many cases, nature and nurture interact and amplify each other's effects. For example, once they reach puberty, boys tend to be physically stronger than girls.