All documented early Vulcan writing was logographic. Like Chinese characters or Egyptian hieroglyphs of Terra, individual words were originally represented by discrete symbols. This is the case for the ancestry of both of the two primary surviving traditions.
Both "ie" and "oi" are written in first position, while "ow" and "ew" are written in third position. If the diphthong is followed by a neutral vowel, a little flick is added. Other shapes[ edit ] Circles The circles are of two sizes — small and large.
Loops The loops are of two sizes — small and big.
Small hooks At the start. For straight strokes pee, bee, tee, dee, chay, jay, kay and gay the hook comes in both the sides of the stroke. Shun hook The shun hook is written on the right hand side of a simple t, d or j.
For straight strokes with initial circle or loop or hook, the shun hook is written in opposite direction section. Depression and depletion have shun hooks in different directions.
For simple straight strokes, the shun hook is written in the direction opposite to the occurrence of the vowel. Caution and auction have shun hooks in different directions. For curved strokes, the shun hook is written after the stroke, continuing the curve motion, notion. To represent the sound s-shun as in sessation, decision, musician etc.
The halving principle may be combined with an initial or final hook or both to make words such as "trained" appear as a single short vertical light stroke with an initial and final hook. There are some exceptions to avoid ambiguous forms: Doubling of curved strokes If ter, der, ture, ther, dher comes in the word the preceding stroke is written double the size matter, nature, mother.
There are exceptions to avoid ambiguous forms: Doubling of straight strokes the doubling principle has an exception when "ter" et al.
Doubling is not employed in that case cadre. If it has more than one stroke before "ter" et al. Cultural references[ edit ] The protagonist of David R. This second Australian edition of the Instructor commemorates the centenary of the system of shorthand invented by Sir Isaac Pitman, who, inpublished his first treatise on the art.
One possible reason for this could be that in the early 19th century, British English had not yet started to drop its non-intervocalic rs.Furigana (振り仮名) is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana, or syllabic characters, printed next to a kanji (ideographic character) or other character to indicate its urbanagricultureinitiative.com is one type of ruby urbanagricultureinitiative.comna is also known as yomigana (読み仮名) or rubi () in Japanese.
In modern Japanese, it is mostly used to gloss rare kanji, to clarify rare, nonstandard or. The Translation Convention trope as used in popular culture. When a group of people whose native language is not English are together, away from any English .
The purpose of the group is to promote the use of Gregg systems of shorthand by providing advice to beginners, support for students, and an association of users of this efficient, attractive, and enjoyable method of writing.
We are pleased to announce winners of the third Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and Literature and its internet discussion group, PHIL-LIT..
The Bad Writing Contest attempts to locate the ugliest, most stylistically awful passage found in a scholarly book or article published in the last few years. On this page: My Other websites. Portraits of Sir Isaac Pitman.
Shorthand Books. Writing Equipment. Shorthand Websites. Shorthand Transcription. Shorthand Articles. Pitman shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Englishman Sir Isaac Pitman (–), who first presented it in Like most systems of shorthand, it is a phonetic system; the symbols do not represent letters, but rather sounds, and words are, for the most part, written as they are spoken.
As of , Pitman shorthand was the most popular shorthand.